Adverb is the word which tells us about verb in a sentence. For example;
She is speaking loudly.
In the above sentence the word [loudly] is related to speaking. Since speaking is the verb therefore [loudly] is an adverb. Similarly there may be many other examples, like;
- He was listening to me attentively.
- He plays chess quite intelligently.
- Read instructions carefully.
- He cautiously walks to avoid any noise.
Mostly adverb is with -ly at the end of the word but it is not always the case, for example, in "yours sincerely" or "yours obediently" the words sincerely and obediently are not adverbs for they don't indicate verb rather they stand for the writer (as the word yours indicate) and therefore the words are adjectives despite having -ly at the end. Similarly in a sentence "Train is late" verb is missing yet the word [late] stands not for the train but for the arriving of the train. Therefore the word [late] is adverb even in the absence of any verb in a sentence. In short adverb has only one identity that it stands for verb.
Degrees of adverb
Adverb may have degrees quite like adjective. like;
- He acts vigilantly.
- He acts more vigilantly.
- He acts most vigilantly.
Similarly there are other ways to change the degree of adverbs like;
- He acts quite vigilantly.
Kinds of adverb
Adverb has FOUR basic kinds.
- Adverb of time
- Adverb of place
- Adverb of manner
- Adverb of frequency
Adverb of time
It is that type of adverb which is related to time, like; soon, rarely, often, seldom, always, tonight, yesterday etc.
Adverb of place
It is the type of adverb that is related to place, like; there, upstairs, behind, below etc.
Adverb of manner
This is an adverb which is related to manner of verbal action, like; hastily, foolishly, gladly, badly, slowly, carefully etc.
Adverb of frequency
Since frequency means the number of times certain event or thing occurs, therefore adverbs of frequency are; often, seldom, rarely, frequently, usually, regularly etc