According to the function of a sentence direct and indirect narrations may be divided into following SIX kinds. Remember, the following functions are related to reported speech (the one in quotation marks). It means what kind of sentence is going to be reported because reported speech of different functions has different methods of conversion. For present we just highlight the kinds of function so that you may understand everything more clearly and piecemeal. The methods of conversion are explained in detail in coming chapters. Now read the details of every function by focusing on its examples especially of reported speech.
kinds of sentences
Simple or assertive
Any sentence which may be called as kernel clause is a simple sentence as we have read in tenses section. Simple sentence may be negative too.
• He said, “I am coming.”
It is any sentence that inquire something.
• He said, “What are you doing here at this
As explained in the voices section, imperatives are those sentences which express orders or requests etc. Read the following examples;
• He said, “Read seriously or never lurk around
Verb in Optative mood expresses wish or preferences. See the examples;
• He said, “May you live long.”
As we have explained in the chapter of interjections that interjections are expressions of sudden feelings of excitement, sorrow, pain or wonder. The sentences that carry interjections are known as exclamatory sentences.
• She said, “How nice to see you here!”
Universal truth means an undeniable fact.
• She said, “Light is a mixture of seven colours.”
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