According to the function of a sentence direct and indirect narrations may be divided into following SIX kinds. Remember, the following functions are related to reported speech (the one in quotation marks). It means what kind of sentence is going to be reported because reported speech of different functions has different methods of conversion. For present we just highlight the kinds of function so that you may understand everything more clearly and piecemeal. The methods of conversion are explained in detail in coming chapters. Now read the details of every function by focusing on its examples especially of reported speech.

kinds of sentences

Simple or assertive
Universal Truths

Simple sentences

Any sentence which may be called as kernel clause is a simple sentence as we have read in tenses section. Simple sentence may be negative too.


• He said, “I am coming.”
• She says, “He is not giving attention to anything.”
• He said, “I like this movie.”


It is any sentence that inquire something.


• He said, “What are you doing here at this time?”
• She says, “Are you going with us?”
• They said, “Can you help me?”


As explained in the voices section, imperatives are those sentences which express orders or requests etc. Read the following examples;

• He said, “Read seriously or never lurk around books.”
• She says, “Don’t look at him.”
• He said, “Never misguide anyone.”


Verb in Optative mood expresses wish or preferences. See the examples;

• He said, “May you live long.”
• She said, “May God bless you.”
• Teacher said, “May you perform better this time.”


As we have explained in the chapter of interjections that interjections are expressions of sudden feelings of excitement, sorrow, pain or wonder. The sentences that carry interjections are known as exclamatory sentences.


• She said, “How nice to see you here!”
• They said, “Oh! I am sorry.”
• He said, “It’s very sad!”

Universal Truth

Universal truth means an undeniable fact.


• She said, “Light is a mixture of seven colours.”
• Teacher said to children, “Earth is round.”
• He said, “There are seven days in a week.”